Landscape planning provides information on existing natural qualities, values, potentials and significance of a landscape. Landscape planning is an action that is concerned with the development of landscape among several other land uses and also safeguarding significant cultural and natural resources like a water fall, rainforest, ocean, and other existing resources that are not created by man. A landscape is the obvious feature of a region that includes landforms such as lakes, rivers, water bodies, ponds, hills, sea, vegetation, and mountains. These characteristics are what define the inhabitants of that region; it is also what differentiates the region from several other regions.
Landscape architecture is the design of public places that hold rich cultural and natural value. The design is made to preserve the aesthetic essence of the land or place and also promote an environmental value. It involves the process of landscape planning- the process of discovering and examining of existing natural qualities, values and cultural significance of the landscape that leads to the designing and restoration of the land to its desired form. Outdoor spaces such as parks, reserves, green ways etc. are the evidence of landscape architecture and their environmental restoration.
The processes involved in landscape planning are a linear progression of activities; it does not necessarily interpret as ecological planning. The planning process should take into account scientific and technical information provided for a better outcome. However, there are common steps involved which are: identification and understanding of problems and advancements, foundation of goals, inventory, analysis and diagnosis of the biological, physical and natural potentials of the environment, plan adoption, specified design, community involvement and administration of plan. The implementation of these processes would not only yield a faster and precise result, it’d also influence and bring out the beauty and value of the region.
Landscape planning is important because it enhances the aesthetic properties of a landscape which in turn contributes immensely to our social and cultural well-being and lifestyle by providing a broader concept that encompasses how we live our lives and surrounding affects it. Aesthetic and culturally rich environment have for long been contributing to several properties that affects the human lives such as healing, tranquility, positivity, love etc. A proper landscape architecture would maintain the natural properties of a region and improve its aspects without interrupting the ecological factors present in that region.
Landscape ecology is study and improvement of the relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems and the how the interaction affects the unique effects of temporal and spatial heterogeneity of these interactions. There are six principles of landscape design that have been utilized over the years by artists in every form of art, they include: balance, focalization, rhythm and line, unity, proportion and simplicity. In the world where landscape design has affected landscape ecology by the interference of humans, there has been environmental crisis that could have been avoided if there was proper landscape planning that aids the sustainability of the ecology.